Kamis, 25 November 2010

American Parliamentary Debate

American Parliamentary Debate is supported by a number of organizations in the United States at the tertiary and secondary levels. The National Parliamentary Debate Association (NPDA), the American Parliamentary Debate Association (APDA), the National Parliamentary Tournament of Excellence (NPTE), the Lincoln Parliamentary League (LPL), and the National Forensic League (NFL), all offer collegiate parliamentary debate.

This style consists of two teams, with the following speakers:

1. Government
1. Prime Minister (PM)
2. Member of the Government (MG)
2. Opposition
1. Leader of the Opposition (LO)
2. Member of the Opposition (MO)

American Parliamentary style debating includes an additional speech from the Leader of each team, in which they are allowed additional time to respond to the opposing team's arguments and sum up their own case, but may not introduce new arguments. Therefore, the speaking order and timings of each debate is generally:

1. Prime Minister: 7 minutes
2. Leader of the Opposition: 8 minutes
3. Member of the Government: 8 minutes
4. Member of the Opposition: 8 minutes
5. Leader of the Opposition Rebuttal: 4 minutes
6. Prime Minister Rebuttal: 5 minutes

As with any debating style, the individual timings may vary between organizations.

In most variations on the style, Points of Information may be asked of the speaker during the first four speeches, except during the first and last minute of each speech (this is known as protected time). Under California High School Speech Association (CHSSA) rules, Points of Information are permitted in all six speeches.

Depending on the variation of the style, the opposing team may interrupt the speaker during a Rebuttal Speech in order to offer one of two kinds of point:

* Points of Order, when the speaker is introducing a new argument during a rebuttal speech, or grossly mischaracterizing arguments.
* Points of Personal Privilege, when the speaker makes offensive claims or personal attacks.

The spirit of Parliamentary Debate is debate that can be taken to the streets. This means that it is easy to understand and educational to all at the same time, no matter the audience member's expertise of the resolution.

The audience is encouraged to show their fervor during Parliamentary Debate. As in British Parliament, anyone in the room (excluding the judge) may cheer or hiss - alternatively, knock in approval or "shame" in disapproval - at any point during a round.

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